虚拟平台用户的数据丢失体验

2017年6月29日星期四 通过 迈克尔·尼西奇

Users of 虚拟 platforms are victims of data loss because of their own mistakes

对于公司而言,虚拟化仍然是一个主要问题’的IT基础架构,导致无数数据丢失事件。随着技术的成熟,收益保持不变: 更低的硬件成本,更低的能耗以及更少的维护客户操作系统和应用程序的管理工作时间。市场分析师来自 Gartner估算 that companies already reach an internal server 虚拟ization rate of over 75%. Today, every main computer technology can be part of 虚拟 platform. 这包括:存储,操作系统,网络或应用程序。

Even though 虚拟ization hypervisors have become better 和 better, there is still a good chance that a data loss will occur. Since 2008, when Kroll 步入正轨 first introduced data recovery for the two most widely used 虚拟ized platforms - VMware 和 Microsoft Hyper-V, their data recovery specialists have seen a variety of data losses.

From the beginning, Kroll 步入正轨 虚拟ization experts gathered information 和 data on the reasons for data loss with a VMware or Hyper-V based system. What comes as surprise, is that after almost a decade of computer 虚拟ization in companies, users make almost the same mistakes today in both VMware 和 Microsoft Hyper-V based 虚拟 platforms as they did in the beginning.

VMware和Hyper-V中数据丢失的常见原因

Kroll 步入正轨 used analysis 和 insights from its internal database of all worldwide data recovery labs 和 published statistics on the most common problems that lead to data loss in 虚拟ized systems.

According to these figures, the five most common reasons for data loss in 虚拟ized environments in 2016 were:

  • 删除的VM(虚拟机)(40%)
  • 硬件故障(30%)
  • 迁移失败(10%)
  • 快照出错(10%)
  • 其他(10%)

When you compare these figures with the ones from 2010, they differ only slightly. In 2010, hardware/RAID failures accounted for 40% of all data losses in 虚拟 systems, while deleted 虚拟 disks 和/or snapshots totaled 36%. These figures clearly show that the most common reasons remained almost the same. What has become less of a factor over the years is formatting 和 reinstallation problems that lead to data loss. While this accounted for 10% of all cases in 2010, 这个数字下降了,现在只是一个 许多原因中的10%“other reasons”.

一个很好的迹象是,多年来,由于使用了虚拟化平台本身而导致的数据丢失变得越来越少。举个例子:“VMFS元数据损坏”占13%“虚拟磁盘损坏” for 1% of all “virtual”2010年的数据丢失。2016年,这些数据丢失的原因已大大减少,现在已成为10%“other reasons” section. This clearly shows that the 虚拟ization platform software products have become better 和 more reliable other the years.

While 虚拟 platforms became better, many users didn’t!

保持不变的是,许多故障和数据丢失是由于人为错误造成的:

  • 删除的虚拟机
  • 迁移失败
  • 快照出错

In most of these human error cases, the IT administrator simply made poor decisions. With better user interfaces 和 administration panels, deleting or migrating hundreds or even thousands of 虚拟 machines or 虚拟 disks is now achievable 通过 just a simple click of a button. The main risk here is that sometimes the user is either too fast or they don’t really know what they are doing. The administrator then attempts to recover the 失踪 data 通过 using internal or 3rd 派对恢复工具。

How can data recovery experts help in 虚拟ization related data losses?

For almost a decade, Kroll 步入正轨 engineers have developed highly specialized tools to recover data from both VMware 虚拟 platforms, like VMware ESX, VMware Virtual SAN (VSAN), as well as Microsoft 虚拟 platforms, including Hyper-V, Virtual Server 和 Virtual PC. For Hyper-V alone, Kroll 步入正轨 researchers have developed a unique Hyper-V tool suite for their data recovery specialists, which can help in almost all common data loss scenarios listed above.

Even though Kroll 步入正轨 has the all the necessary tools to recover data from 虚拟 platforms 和 systems like VMware ESX 和 Microsoft Hyper-V, every case is different. Utilizing a data recovery specialist with deep knowledge is critical.

How are 失踪 VMs recoverable after deletion?

First, the specialists try to find the original pointers to the 失踪 虚拟 disk. If found, they 虚拟ly rebuild the pointers to the 失踪 虚拟 disk 和 extract the data. Pointers can be 失踪 becasue of corruption or blocks errors. Kroll 步入正轨工程师可以提取虚拟磁盘中的数据。 In the situation where pointers are 失踪, engineers will scan the entire data store for the blocks that make up the 失踪 虚拟 disk. 然后,他们将以正确的顺序虚拟地将所有已识别的数据块放在一起,并提取数据。

硬件故障!我的天啊!

First, all individual drives belonging to the system are imaged in the clean room. If some drives are ruined, the experts will replace them 和 use special tools to 虚拟ly rebuild the RAID or storage system. Once the storage has been 虚拟ly rebuilt, the engineers will attempt to recover the 失踪 data.

如果 迁移出错了吗?

Typically when a migration goes wrong, the experts examine the internal structure of the 虚拟ized source storage first 和 then rebuild the original 虚拟 machine.

How is 虚拟 data recoverable when snapshots have gone awry?

If the snapshots are 失踪 or deleted, the specialists will try to find 和 虚拟ly rebuild the original pointers to address the original files.  If they cannot recover the pointers, they will then recover the raw blocks that make up the snapshot 和 虚拟ly rebuild them. When a snapshot is corrupted, engineers will use Kroll 步入正轨’s special tools to merge the flat file with the corrupted snapshot. Afterwards, they 虚拟ly repair any 文件系统损坏 at the guest level 和 then extract the data inside of the 虚拟 disk 和/or the snapshots to get to the desired original files in both cases.

Data recovery from 虚拟 platforms 和 systems is too difficult 和 dangerous for non-professionals

可以看到,从虚拟平台和系统恢复数据绝对不是一件容易的事。它涉及很多知识,专业工具以及时间。在许多情况下,由于必须在虚拟环境中使用不同的数据结构层,因此将多个技术挑战合并到一个数据恢复项目中“recreated”为了重新获得对原始文件的访问权限。因此,如果发生数据丢失,明智的做法是使用户保持冷静,不要尝试自己动手进行数据恢复。在许多尝试中,丢失的数据在硬盘上仍然可用,但是在尝试DYI时可以永久删除。此外,关闭受影响的硬件是明智的,因此没有应用程序可以在磁盘上运行任何脚本并覆盖“missing”数据。无论如何,最好与Kroll 步入正轨等专业数据恢复服务提供商联系。专家可以为从虚拟平台或系统成功恢复数据所需的步骤提供合理的建议和专业的估计。

图片版权:Windorias / pixelio.de

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